Argument Form Finder

 0    6 speciālā zīme    ianmillado
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jautājums American English atbilde American English
Modus Ponens
sākt mācīties
p —> q, p: q
If I scream, then I shout. I scream. Therefore, I shout.
Modus Tollens
sākt mācīties
p —> q, ~q: ~p
If I sneeze, then I say, "Excuse me." I did not say, "Excuse me." Therefore, I did not sneeze.
sākt mācīties
(1) Assume true what you think is false, (2) try to show something crazy follows from what you assumed, and (3) conclude that what you assumed to be false is actually true.
Assume the moon is an optical illusion. If the moon is an optical illusion, then no one can land on the moon. So no one can land on the moon. But that's crazy: Neil Armstrong landed on the moon. Therefore, the moon is not an optical illusion.
What is some general advice for finding the form of an argument?
sākt mācīties
Read carefully & slowly. Identify which claims are premises & which is the conclusion. Be aware of the word "not;" underline "not" wherever it appears.
How do you identify a Reductio?
Give some examples of what to look out for.
sākt mācīties
Look for words or phrases that give away that it is a Reductio.
"But that's crazy." "But that's absurd." "Assume that ..." "Suppose that ..."
How do you identify a Modus Ponens or Modus Tollens?
If (God said it), then (it is true). (It is not true). Therefore, (God did not say it).
sākt mācīties
Replace propositions with sentence-letters.
P —> Q, ~Q: ~P

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